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обзор для роснанЫ-нанЫ на который нет реакции Чубайса
предыдущий https://termo-drova.livejournal.com/2019/05/18/ не вместил текст обзора -вот и попытаюсь сокращенно (без трети найденных публикаций не относящихся к исследованиям по биомассе) дать:
1) Сотовый твердый углерод, полученный из семян сосны, в качестве высокопроизводительного анодного материала для ионно-натриевых батарей
Sodium-ion batteries are regarded as one of the most promising energy storage systems, but the choice of anode material is still facing great challenges. Biomass carbon materials were explored for their low cost and wide range of sources. Here, a hard carbon material with a “honeycomb” structure using pine pollen (PP) as a precursor was successfully prepared and applied as an anode. The initial discharge capacity can reach 370 mA h g–1 at a current density of 0.1 A g–1. After cycling 200 times, the reversible capacity also stabled at 203.3 mA h g–1 with the retention rate of 98%. We further studied the sodium storage mechanism by different methods, especially the Na+ diffusivity coefficient (DNa+) calculated by galvanostatic intermittent titration technique, which was more accurate. Interestingly, the trend of DNa+ coincides with cyclic voltammetry curves. Carbonized PP exhibited excellent electrochemical properties because of its three-dimensional structure and larger layer spacing (∼0.41 nm), which reduces the resistance of sodium ions to intercalation and deintercalation.
3) Изготовление микропористых углеродных микропробирок (из биомассы), легированных серой, для высокопроизводительных натрий-ионных батарей
Developing efficient anode materials for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) is important for the storage of renewable energy. Inspired by the rapid development of biomass-derived hard carbons and heteroatom-doped carbon materials in various areas, a high-temperature sulfurizing method is exploited for the fabrication of sulfur-doped carbon microtubes (S-CMTs). Owing to high sulfur doping (10.2 wt %) and well-developed microporous structure, the as-prepared S-CMTs show a large charge capacity of 532 mAh g–1 at a current rate of 200 mA g–1, outstanding rate capability (234 mAh g–1 at 2 A g–1), and exceptional cycling stability (281 mAh g–1 after 1000 cycles at 1 A g–1), values that are superior to those of biomass-derived carbons reported previously. The excellent electrochemical performance of S-CMTs in full cells paired with N,B-co-doped carbon-coated Na3V2(PO4)3 cathodes further demonstrates the feasibility of SIBs. The simple synthesis strategy can potentially be extended to other carbon-based anode materials for sodium-ion batteries.
4) Расширение межслоевого расстояния между твердым углеродом (из скорлупы кокосового ореха) путем естественного легирования K + для увеличения накопления Na-ионов
Heteroatom-doped carbon is an attractive material for anodes in lithium-/sodium-ion batteries as a replacement for traditional graphite anodes. However, the complex fabrication process and high cost limit practical applications of these carbon materials. Here, we report a low-cost, natural potassium-doped carbon material, which is directly carbonized from the coconut endocarp—a kind of high potassium-containing biomass material. The obtained carbon structure features an expanded d(002)-spacing (0.4 nm) originating from the superhigh potassium content (6654 mg kg–1). Because of the improvement on charge transfer kinetics and electrical properties, the potassium-doped carbon anode exhibits promising electrochemical performance in sodium-ion batteries, including high initial reversible capacity (314 mAh g–1) and good cycle stability (289 mAh g–1 after 200 cycles). Additionally, this work opens up a new approach for the design of heteroatom-doped carbon materials from the viewpoint of being naturally environmental friendly.
6) Углерод с расширенными и хорошо развитыми графеновыми плоскостями, полученными непосредственно из конденсированного лигнина из древесных опилок дуба и сахарного тростника, в качестве высокоэффективного анода для натрий-ионных батарей
In this study, we demonstrate that lignin, which constitutes 30–40 wt % of the terrestrial lignocellulosic biomass and is produced from second generation biofuel plants as a cheap byproduct, is an excellent precursor material for sodium-ion battery (NIB) anodes. Because it is rich in aromatic monomers that are highly cross-linked by ether and condensed bonds, the lignin material carbonized at 1300 °C (C-1300) in this study has small graphitic domains with well-developed graphene layers, a large interlayer spacing (0.403 nm), and a high micropore surface area (207.5 m2 g–1). When tested as an anode in an NIB, C-1300 exhibited an initial Coulombic efficiency of 68% and a high reversible capacity of 297 mA h g–1 at 50 mA g–1 after 50 cycles. The high capacity of 199 mA h g–1 at less than 0.1 V with a flat voltage profile and an extremely low charge–discharge voltage hysteresis (<0.03 V) make C-1300 a promising energy-dense electrode material. In addition, C-1300 exhibited an excellent high-rate performance of 116 mA h g–1 at 2.5 A g–1 and showed stable cycling retention (0.2% capacity decay per cycle after 500 cycles). By comparing the properties of the lignin-derived carbon with oak sawdust-derived and sugar-derived carbons and a low-temperature carbonized sample (900 °C), the reasons for the excellent performance of C-1300 were determined to result from facilitated Na+-ion transport to the graphitic layer and the microporous regions that penetrate through the less defective and enlarged interlayer spacings.
7) Стратегия парной карбонизации в направлении усовершенствованного твердого углерода (из сахарозы и фенольной смолы) для высокоэнергетической натрий-ионной батареи
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are expected to be a promising commercial alternative to lithium-ion batteries for grid electricity storage due to their potential low cost in the near future. Up to the present, the anode material still remains a great challenge for the application of SIBs, especially at room temperature. Graphite has an obvious limitation to store larger radius sodium ions (Na+) in comparison with lithium ions (Li+), while the hard carbon with large interlayer distance can demonstrate a relatively high storage capability and durable cycle life. However, the disadvantages of low initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) mainly caused by large surface area and high cost synthetic approach hinder its practical applications. Herein, a new coupled carbonization strategy is presented to prepare a cost-effective hard carbon material by pyrolyzing and carbonizing the mixture of abundant sucrose and phenolic resin. Benefiting from the specialized pyrolysis reaction process and optimized conditions as studied in detail, the hard carbon has an extremely low surface area of 1.54 m2 g–1 and high initial Coulombic efficiency of 87%, which have been rarely reported before and enhance the utilization efficiency of Na+ consumption within the cathode in the future. More importantly, the hard carbon, with a high interlayer distance 3.95 Å, can deliver a higher capacity of 319 mAh g–1 and maintain a finer capacity retention of 90% over 150 cycles. Besides, a full cell with the configuration of as-prepared hard carbon anode versus an air-stable O3–Na0.9[Cu0.22Fe0.30Mn0.48]O2 cathode is further presented, and it has a high ICE of 80% and energy density of 256 Wh kganode–1 (vs hard carbon) with reliable cycle performance. The results demonstrate that our synthetic strategy is feasible and extendable, while the tunable carbon-based materials should have wider applications in addition to the attractive properties in Na-ion batteries.
8) Недорогие и высокопроизводительные материалы (биоотходы плодов манго) с твердым углеродным анодом для ионно-натриевых аккумуляторов
As an anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), hard carbon (HC) presents high specific capacity and favorable cycling performance. However, high cost and low initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) of HC seriously limit its future commercialization for SIBs. A typical biowaste, mangosteen shell was selected as a precursor to prepare low-cost and high-performance HC via a facile one-step carbonization method, and the influence of different heat treatments on the morphologies, microstructures, and electrochemical performances was investigated systematically. The microstructure evolution studied using X-ray diffraction, Raman, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, along with electrochemical measurements, reveals the optimal carbonization condition of the mangosteen shell: HC carbonized at 1500 °C for 2 h delivers the highest reversible capacity of ∼330 mA h g–1 at a current density of 20 mA g–1, a capacity retention of ∼98% after 100 cycles, and an ICE of ∼83%. Additionally, the sodium-ion storage behavior of HC is deeply analyzed using galvanostatic intermittent titration and cyclic voltammetry technologies.
10) Высокотемпературная карбонизированная трава (солома просо) в качестве высокоэффективного анодно-ионной батареи
Hard carbon is currently considered the most promising anode candidate for room temperature sodium ion batteries because of its relatively high capacity, low cost, and good scalability. In this work, switchgrass as a biomass example was carbonized under an ultrahigh temperature, 2050 °C, induced by Joule heating to create hard carbon anodes for sodium ion batteries. Switchgrass derived carbon materials intrinsically inherit its three-dimensional porous hierarchical architecture, with an average interlayer spacing of 0.376 nm. The larger interlayer spacing than that of graphite allows for the significant Na ion storage performance. Compared to the sample carbonized under 1000 °C, switchgrass derived carbon at 2050 °C induced an improved initial Coulombic efficiency. Additionally, excellent rate capability and superior cycling performance are demonstrated for the switchgrass derived carbon due to the unique high temperature treatment.
17) Полученные из биомассы наноструктурированные пористые угли для натриево-ионных батарей: обзор
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered one of the optimal the large scale and low cost energy storage systems for smart grid system owing to the abundant sodium resource. Among various anode materials, the biomass-derived nanostructured porous carbons (BDNPCs) show some promising in SIBs due to obvious advantages of abundant resource, low cost, nontoxicity and high safety. In this review, the recent progress of the sodium storage performance of the biomass derived nanostructured porous carbons is summarized. Moreover, the dependent of SIB performances on the porous structures from BDNPCs is discussed. It is expected that this review may provide an in-depth understanding and guide rational design of high-performance anode materials by using low-cost, sustainable and natural biomass precursors.
18) Твердые угли, полученные из отработанного порошка чайного пакетика в качестве анодов для ионно-ионной батареи
In recent years, biomass-based hard carbons have become main interest in sodium battery research community because of the abundant availability, cheap and excellent electrochemical performance. Here, hard carbons derived from waste tea bag powder have been prepared by hydrothermal carbonization and then followed by the physical activation. The hard carbons possessed sheet-like structures which contained sufficient mesopore and micropore structures to assist the sodium ion transport and electrolyte penetration. The interlayer spacing of the obtained hard carbons is larger than that of graphite which can allow the insertion/extraction of sodium ions during charge-discharge process. When utilized as anodes for sodium ion batteries, the hard carbons performed stable cycle profiles, maintaining a specific capacity of 193 mAh g−1 until the 100th cycle at a current density of 100 mA g−1 and capacity of 127 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles under a current density of 1000 mA g−1.
19) Низкотемпературный рост твердого углерода с графитовым кристаллом (из биомассы) для хранения ионов натрия с высокой начальной кулоновской эффективностью: общий метод
Practical application of hard carbon materials in sodium‐ion batteries (SIBs) is largely limited by their low initial coulombic efficiency (ICE), which may be improved by increasing the graphitization degree. However, biomass‐derived hard carbon is usually nongraphitizable and extremely difficult to graphitize by direct heating even at 3000 °C. Herein, a general strategy is reported for fabricating hard carbon materials with graphite crystals at 1300 °C promoted by external graphite that serves as a crystal template for the growth of graphite crystals. The graphite crystals enable the contacted pseudographitic domains with a high‐level ordered structure, large domain size, and low defects, leading to an enhanced ICE. The obtained hard carbon materials with graphite crystals, using the carbonized eggshell membranes, and sucrose‐derived microsphere as precursors, achieve very high ICE of 89% and 91% with reversible capacity of 310 and 301 mA h g−1, respectively. Therefore, using external graphite to promote high‐level ordering pseudographitic domains at low temperature is quite useful to improve ICE for SIB applications.
22) Твердый углерод, полученный из рисовой шелухи в качестве недорогих отрицательных электродов в Na-ионных батареях
Here, we report the synthesis of hard carbon materials (RH) made from natural rice husk through a single pyrolysis process and their application as an anode in sodium-ion batteries. The studies show that the electrochemical properties of RHs are affected by the treatment temperatures, which determine the materials morphology, in particular, their degree of graphitization and extent of continuous channels (nanovoids). The latter are accessible to sodium ions and significantly contribute to charge storage capacity of the produced anodes. The RHs obtained at 1600 °C deliver the highest reversible capacity of 276 mAh g−1 mainly due to insertion of sodium ions into the nanovoids. This work deepens the basic understanding of the influence of the carbonization temperature on the sodium storage mechanism.
23) Легкий синтез иерархических углеродных композитов фосфид железа / биомасса (из листьев магнолии) для натриево-ионных батарей без связующего
Seeking a simple direct construction strategy for transition‐metal‐phosphide‐based composites as anodes for sodium‐ion batteries is attracting great attention for the development of high‐performance sodium‐ion batteries. In this work, we design iron phosphide nanosheets grown on a biomass carbon membrane by a facile electrodeposition method, followed by an annealing process. The biomass carbon membranes as three dimensional frameworks, possessing initial biological structures from Magnolia leaves, do not only improve the conductivity of the electrodes but also relieve iron phosphide aggregation during the charging‐discharging processes. The iron phosphide nanosheets could increase the accessible surface area for electrochemical reactions, further promoting the storage of sodium ions. Due to the unique structure of the iron phosphide nanosheets/biomass carbon membrane, the electrodes exhibit 500.9 mAh g−1 at a current density of 50 mA g−1 after 100 cycles. Even at a high current density of 500 mA g−1, the electrodes still retain 197 mAh g−1 after a long‐time test (500 cycles). These novel features make the composite a great potential anode material for binder‐free sodium‐ion batteries.
27) Последние достижения в производстве материалов на основе целлюлозы и их перспективное применение в натриево-ионных батареях и конденсаторах
Cellulose as the most abundant natural biopolymer on earth has shown promising potential because of its excellent physical, mechanical, and biocompatible properties, which are very important for sustainable energy storage systems (ESSs). In this review, a comprehensive summary of the applications involving all kinds and forms of cellulose in the advanced Na‐related ESSs, including sodium ion batteries (SIBs) and sodium ion capacitors (SICs), is presented. For cellulose, the impact of various structures and surface chemical properties on the electrochemical performance is focused on. In particular, the latest developments in cellulose‐based binders and separators are highlighted. In addition, an in‐depth understanding of the structure and performance of electrode materials and the storage mechanism of a hard carbon anode derived from cellulose for SIBs is provided. Further, the manufacturing of full‐cellulose‐based SICs assembled by all parts of devices including hard carbon anodes, active carbon cathodes, binders, and separator based on cellulose or cellulose derivatives is reviewed. Finally, the prospects of cellulose‐based energy storage systems on several issues that need further exploration are presented.
28) Синтез без шаблонов микросфер Li4Ti5O12 с углеродным покрытием из биомассы (листья дерева Феникс) в качестве высокопроизводительных анодов для литий-ионных аккумуляторов
The hierarchical Li4Ti5O12/C microspheres based on the waste biomass of phoenix tree leaf are synthesized as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. The phoenix tree leaf derived activated carbon (CPTL) are uniformly coated on the surface of acanthosphere-like Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) microspheres using a facial hydrothermal method to fabricate hierarchical porous structures with conductive interconnected 3D networks. Results show that the LTO-CPTL composite with 3 wt% carbon delivers the best electrochemical performance at both ambient and low temperatures with an initial discharge capacity of 212 mAh g−1 at 1 C and capacity retention of 95% after 500 cycles. The present study demonstrates a facile and cost-efficient way to fabricate high performance electrode materials for batteries.
29) Влияние температуры на синтез углерода, полученного из лигнина, для электрохимического накопления энергии
Herein, we present a detailed study by N2 sorption and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) of the carbonization and KOH activation of lignin for its application as active material for electrochemical energy storage. It has been observed that i) the carbonization of lignin above 700 °C leads to a hard carbon with a large amount of bulk (buried) fine structure microporosity and a good performance as Na-ion negative electrode, ii) when KOH activation is done after complete carbonization it is mainly increasing the accessibility of the initial bulk microporosity, leading to a carbon with good performance as symmetric supercapacitor in aqueous electrolyte and iii) when carbonization and KOH activation are done simultaneously, a distinct pore structure is generated with a large amount of mesopores, suitable for symmetric supercapacitor in organic electrolyte. By combining SAXS, which is sensitive to bulk as well as surface porosity, and N2 sorption which probes surface porosity, it has been possible to follow the intricate mechanism of microporosity development. Finally, it is believed that these results can be extrapolated to various biomass based precursors.
30) Последние достижения в области материалов для ионно-натриевых аккумуляторов
As a lot of biomass materials mainly consist of elemental C, H, N and O, generating carbonaceous materials from them is practicable. A large variety of biomass materials have been utilized to synthesize carbonaceous materials, such as, banana peels [170], natural cotton [171], corn cobs [172], apple biowaste [173], oatmeal [174], coconut oil [175], okara [176], pomelo peels [177], oak leaves [178]. Different biomass materials have different microstructures and chemical compositions, which determine the microstructure, morphology, specific area and composition of derived carbon materials, finally influencing the sodium storage characteristics. And the biomass materials often contain some heteroatoms (such as, N, P and S), which can be doped into the derived carbon. Choosing proper biomass materials and optimizing the carbonizing process should be the key routes to obtain carbonaceous materials with high sodium storage performance.
33) Разработка современных (из биомассы лигнина и эпоксидной смолы) углеродных материалов из взаимопроникающих полимерных сетей на основе лигнина для высокоэффективных натриево-ионных батарей
Hard carbon materials hold the most promising application among all anode materials for sodium-ion batteries because of the high storage capacity and good cycling stability. However, the low initial Coulombic efficiency limits their further commercialization. Herein, a new carbonization strategy is presented to prepare a cost-effective hard carbon material as anodes for sodium-ion batteries by pyrolyzing the interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) made from the mixture of biomass-derivative lignin and epoxy resin. By adjusting heat-treatment temperatures and the lignin/epoxy resin mass ratios, we can adjust the interlayer distance of carbon crystallites and defect sites for Sodium-ion storage, and thus obtain a hard carbon with a high capacity of 316 mAh g−1, a high ICE of 82%, and good rate capability (e.g., 161 mAh g−1 at 300 mA g−1), all of which are superior to or comparable to those state-of-the-art carbons reported in literatures, by the help of a large interlayer distance of 3.95 Å. Besides, a full cell with the configuration of as-prepared hard carbon anode versus air-stable O3-Na0.9[Cu0.22Fe0.30Mn0.48]O2 cathode is further demonstrated, while it presents a high ICE of 80% and an energy density of 247 Wh kganode−1 (vs. hard carbon) with good cycle performance. These excellent properties verify that our synthetic strategy is feasible, scalable and can be extended into the fabrication of various carbon anode materials with anticipative microstructures for the economical SIBs.
34) Трехмерный анод без связующего на основе углеродных наночастиц (биомасса) для перезаряжаемых щелочно-ионных батарей
We demonstrate a simple and effective method for the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) binder-free carbon anode using biomass as a carbon source. The anode consisted of interconnected carbon nanoparticles self-assembled onto a nickel foam substrate, providing easy electrolyte access throughout the electrode. The unique 3D electrode architecture prevented deformation of the electrode during cycling. The absence of binder and conducting additive simplifies the electrode fabrication process, thus lowering the battery fabrication costs. As a proof of concept, the anode when tested against lithium delivered a specific discharge capacity of 764 mA h g−1 at a current density of 50 mA g−1, with an exceptional cycling stability at high current rates (e.g., delivering a capacity of 664 mA h g−1 at 500th cycle at a current density of 1 A g−1). Furthermore, the anode was also tested against sodium, exhibiting a reversible discharge capacity of 241 mA h g−1 in the second cycle at a current density of 50 mA g−1 and remained stable over prolonged cycling. The ion storage mechanism was studied using ex-situ spectroscopic techniques.
35) От механизма хранения заряда к производительности: дорожная карта для производства высоко-удельных энергоемких натриево-ионных аккумуляторов через оптимизацию углеродных анодов
Certainly, the whole dimensions of carbon nanostructures can also be obtained by the biomasses,18 but the raw materials are restricted. The bee pollen, cellulose, corn, and peat mosses are transformed into 0D CQDs, 1D CNFs, 2D graphene, as well as 3D macroscopic carbon frameworks, respectively. To date, controlling carbon morphologies is still unsolved.
38) Полученный из отходов Люффы (травянистая лиана) твердый углерод для анода с длинной цикличностью в натриево-ионной батарее
Hard carbon was prepared via the carbonization of the old loofah sponge at 800 °C for 1 h in the inert N2 atmosphere for sodium ion battery (SIB) anode. The resultant old-loofah-derived hard carbon was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and alternating current (AC) impedance. The results suggested that the old-loofah-derived hard carbon powders consisted of many irregular micro-particles with the mean particle size of 12 μm. Furthermore, the old-loofah-derived hard carbon anode also delivered satisfactory electrochemical performances in SIB. For example, the initial discharge specific capacity was as high as about 695 mAh g−1 at 25 mA g−1, and the reversible discharge specific capability after 1000 cycles was still about 171 mAh g−1 even at 1000 mA g−1, indicating long cycle stability and the promising feasibility of the old-loofah-derived hard carbon anode. The disordered micro-structure and large interlayer distance may jointly contribute into the satisfactory electrochemical performances.
40) Графеноподобные 2D пористые углеродные нанолистики, полученные из сердцевинного стержня (соломы кукурузы) для материалов, аккумулирующих энергию
Biomass materials from different organisms or different parts (even different periods) of the same organism have different microscopic morphologies, hierarchical pore structures and even elemental compositions. Therefore, carbon materials inheriting the unique hierarchical microstructure of different biomass materials may exhibit significantly different electrochemical properties. Cornstalk pith and cornstalk skin (dried by freeze-drying) exhibit significantly different microstructures due to their different biological functions. The cornstalk skin-based carbon (S-carbon) exhibits a thick planar morphology, and the Barrett-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area is only about 332.07 m2 g. However, cornstalk pith-based carbon (P-carbon) exhibits a graphene-like 2D porous nanosheet structure with a rough, wrinkled morphology, and the BET surface area is about 805.17 m2 g−1. In addition, a P-carbon supercapacitor exhibits much higher specific capacitance and much better rate capability than an S-carbon supercapacitor in 6 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte.
41) Легированные гетероатомами пористые углеродные нити, полученные из моксовой (китайская полынь) нити разных лет хранения суперконденсаторов
Two novel carbons (MCs) derived from moxa floss of different storage years have been prepared by two low-cost and facile approaches, which are hydrothermal carbonization at a low temperature (200 °C) and direct pyrolysis at a moderate temperature (500 °C) followed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation strategy at a high temperature (800 °C), respectively. The physicochemical properties of MCs are investigated by Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. Results show that MCs derived from moxa floss of different storage years by two facile approaches possess different morphologies: MCs by hydrothermal carbonization (denoted as MC-1, MC-2 and MC-3) exhibit porous nanosheet structures, the highest specific surface area is about 1788.6 m2 g−1, and the largest total pore volumes is around 0.8170 cm3 g−1, while MCs by direct pyrolysis (denoted as MC-4, MC-5 and MC-6) have basically blocky and rod-like morphologies, the highest specific surface area is about 1628.0 m2 g−1, and the largest total pore volume is around 0.7058 cm3 g−1. However, despite the different morphologies, all MCs possess a similar hierarchical porous structure, numerous heteroatom groups and good electrical conductivity. Therefore, these low-cost, biomass-derived porous carbons with promising capacitive performance are used for supercapacitors application with high performance, for example, the as-assembled supercapacitor based on MC-5 exhibits a high specific capacitance of 288.3 F g−1 at 0.25 A g−1, an excellent rate performance of 243.5 F g−1 even at 30 A g−1 with 84.5% capacitance retention of its initial specific capacitance, and an outstanding long-term cycling stability with 98.7% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles at 5 A g−1. Furthermore, the maximum energy density for these supercapacitors with an aqueous electrolyte in a two-electrode system is about 10.0 W h kg−1 at a power density of 70.3 W kg−1. Therefore, this work opens up a whole new field for the applications of moxa floss and this novel concept of moxa floss use is an extremely promising strategy for developing high-performance carbons with porous structures and heteroatom-doping from renewable sources
42) Углеродистые материалы на основе лигнина (где скорлупа грецкого ореха хуже древесных отходов) на основе биологической очистки в качестве анодов для Na-ионных батарей
Carbonaceous materials derived from biomass lignin-based precursors are an attractive alternative to the hard carbon materials generally used in Na-ion batteries. In this work, we employed almond shells as biowaste precursors and investigated the impact of the annealing atmosphere (Ar, N2, or Ar/H2) on the physicochemical and the electrochemical properties of the obtained carbonaceous materials. Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, and scanning electron microscopy indicated a relationship between the porosity and the annealing atmosphere. Under a reductive atmosphere, the surface chemistry of the sample was modified, which had an impact on the electrochemical performance. The materials synthesized under Ar and N2 atmospheres delivered specific charges of ca. 255 mAh·g−1, which were sustained for more than 60 cycles, whereas the electrochemical performance of the carbonaceous material synthesized under a reductive atmosphere (Ar/H2) was drastically diminished. Once the optimal synthesis conditions were determined, other lignin-derived biowaste materials, such as walnut shells and scrap wood, were also investigated. Despite having similar physicochemical properties, the carbonaceous material derived from scrap wood exhibited better electrochemical performance (specific charge of 270 mAh·g−1), confirming the impact of morphology on the electrochemical performance.
43) Расширенный твердый углерод, полученный из биомассы (лепестки вишни), со сверхстабильными характеристиками в натриево-ионных батареях
A hard carbon sheet-like structure has been successfully prepared with a short flow process by simply using cherry petals (CPs) as the raw materials. The sodium storage mechanism in CPs was detected with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Encouragingly, when being assessed as an anode electrode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), the CP electrode can provide a high initial reversible capacity of 310.2 mA h g−1 with a favorable initial Coulomb efficiency of 67.3%, delivering a high retention rate of 99.3% at 20 mA g−1 after 100 cycles. Even at a high current density of 500 mA g−1, the reversible capacity can reach 146.5 mA h g−1, indicating that the high rate performance is excellent as well. Such a preferable performance may be derived from the prepared structures with sufficient mesopores, the presence of nitrogen/oxygen functional groups on the surface and the expanded interlayer distances (∼0.44 nm), which enable reversible sodium-ion storage through surface adsorption and sodium intercalation
44) Углеродные (полученные из растительной биомассы) анодные материалы для современных натриево-ионных аккумуляторов
The ever‐increasing demand of lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs) caused by the rapid development of various electronics and electric vehicles will be hindered by the limited lithium resource. Thus sodium‐ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as a promising potential alternative for LIBs owing to the abundant sodium resource and similar electrochemical performances. In recent years, significant achievements regarding anode materials which restricted the development of SIBs in the past decades have been attained. Significantly, the sodium storage feasibility of carbon materials with abundant resource, low cost, nontoxicity and high safety has been confirmed, and extensive investigation have demonstrated that the carbonaceous materials can become promising electrode candidates for SIBs. In this review, the recent progress of the sodium storage performances of carbonaceous materials, including graphite, amorphous carbon, heteroatom‐doped carbon, and biomass derived carbon, are presented and the related sodium storage mechanism is also summarized. Additionally, the critical issues, challenges and perspectives are provided to further understand the carbonaceous anode materials.
46) Высокопродуктивные твердые (из растительной биомассы) угли на основе гуминовых кислот как перспективные анодные материалы для ионно-натриевых аккумуляторов
A low-cost and sustainable anode material is essential for the future commercialization of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Among all proposed anode materials for SIBs, hard carbons are considered to hold the most promise. However, high cost and low carbon yield of precursors limit its industrialization process. Here the synthesis of a biomass-derived hard carbon from leonardite humic acid (LHA) through a facile process was reported. The obtained hard carbons with an amazing high carbon yield of 60.73% were evaluated as anode for SIBs. The LHA-based hard carbons exhibit a promising anode performance with a sodium storage capacity of 345 mAh g−1, an initial coulombic efficiency up to 73% and superior cyclic stability. Combined with the facile synthesis process and abundant resource, the LHA-based hard carbons may hold a promising future as anode materials for SIBs.
47) Крупногабаритные графеноподобные пористые углеродные нанолистики с контролируемой поверхностью с N-легированием, полученные из Багассы (отходы) с содержанием сахарного тростника / хитозана (грибы, скорлупа рачков) для высокоэффективных суперконденсаторов
The large-size graphene-like porous carbon nanosheets (LGPCN) with controllable N-doped surface are successfully prepared by using a simple and effective integrated “self-template” and “designing” strategy through KOH activation. Biomass-sugarcane bagasse pith and chitosan are used as self-template carbon source and controlled nitrogen source, respectively. The relationship between structure of the LGPCN-X (X represents the activation temperature) and its electrochemical performance at different activation temperatures is explored in detail. The large-size multiscale wrinkled nanosheets architecture, high surface area, and appropriate controllable surface nitrogen doping state of the LGPCN-800 shows the best electrochemical performance in 6 M KOH. The largest specific electrode capacitance is about 339 F g−1 (at 0.25 A g−1), which still as high as 280 F g−1 at 100 A g−1. The maximum energy density is about 11.77 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 34.11 W kg−1. The LGPCN-800 also shows an excellent cycling stability with 97.9% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles.
49) Зеленый путь для синтеза недорогого и высокоэффективного твердого углерода в качестве перспективных анодов из натрий-ионных аккумуляторов из отходов стебля сорго
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered to be potential candidates for next-generation low-cost energy storage systems due to the low-cost and abundance of Na resources. However, it is a big challenge to find suitable anode materials with low-cost and good performance for the application of SIBs. Hard carbon could be a promising anode material due to high capacity and expectable low-cost if originating from biomass. Herein, we report a hard carbon material derived from abundant and abandoned biomass of sorghum stalk through a simple carbonization method. The effects of carbonization temperature on microstructure and electrochemical performance are investigated. The hard carbon carbonized at 1300 °C delivers the best rate capability (172 mAh g−1 at 200 mA g−1) and good cycling performance (245 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles at 20 mA g−1, 96% capacity retention). This contribution provides a green route for transforming sorghum stalk waste into “treasure” of promising low-cost anode material for SIBs.
50) Мягкие и морщинистые углеродные мембраны, полученные из лепестков (цветов) для гибких суперконденсаторов
Biomass materials are promising precursors for the production of carbonaceous materials due to their abundance, low cost and renewability. Here, a freestanding wrinkled carbon membrane (WCM) electrode material for flexible supercapacitors (SCs) was obtained from flower petal. The carbon membrane was fabricated by a simple thermal pyrolysis process and further activated by heating the sample in air. As a binder and current collector-free electrode, the activated wrinkled carbon membrane (AWCM) exhibited a high specific capacitance of 332.7 F/g and excellent cycling performance with 92.3% capacitance retention over 10000 cycles. Moreover, a flexible all-solid supercapacitor with AWCM electrode was fabricated and showed a maximum specific capacitance of 154 F/g and great bending stability. The development of this flower petal based carbon membrane provides a promising cost-effective and environmental benign electrode material for flexible energy storage.
52) Пластинчатый твердый (рапсовая шелуха) углерод в качестве анодов для натриево-ионных батарей
Hard carbon with large interlayer spacing is suitable as the anode material for sodium-ion batteries. Rape seed shuck derived lamellar hard carbon is synthesized through hydrothermal and pyrolysis processes. As the anode, it exhibited good cycling stability, delivering a capacity of 143 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g−1. The promising performances are attributed to the sheet structure with expanded interlayer distance (0.39 nm) and much void which can lower the sodium-ion insertion-extraction barrier and promote Na-ion diffusion and storage. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the performance is also investigated.
53) Изготовление высокопористого углерода в качестве носителя серы с использованием отработанного порошка зеленого чая в пакетиках для литий-серных батарей
An activated carbon (AC) was synthesized via pyrolysis of waste green tea bag powder at 600 °C and subsequent activation of the carbonized powder by KOH at 800 °C. The AC powder exhibited an irregular particle size but a large specific surface area and pore volume of 2015 m2 g−1 and 0.727 cm3 g−1, respectively, which were significantly enhanced values compared with those of the original waste green tea bag powder. Furthermore, we tested the AC for use as a sulfur host for a lithium–sulfur battery cathode using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling.
54) Самопроизвольное образование переплетенных пористых каналов в твердом углероде на основе твердых пород древесины для высокопроизводительных анодов в калиево-ионных батареях
For the first time we report that hard-wood (oak) can spontaneously create interconnected channels of μm to nm in diameter during carbonization at an optimized temperature (1100°C). These microstructural features have never been found in other hard-carbons without the use of additives. When compared with sucrose-based hard-carbon (SHC), oak-based hard-carbon (OHC) shows much higher charge-storage capability (ca. 223 vs. 112 mAh·g−1 at 20 mA·g−1) and excellent stability (fading rate of 0.04 vs. 0.08%·cycle−1) as an anode in potassium-ion batteries. The high performance of OHC mainly results from interwoven nanoporous channels, which lead to facile charge transfer and fast K+-diffusion.
55) Трехмерная взаимосвязанная (из обычного бумажного полотенца) углеродно-волоконная сеть с поддержкой Ultralong Life Na3 V2 (PO4) 3 @ Углеродная бумага Катод для натрий-ионных батарей
Sodium‐ion batteries (NIBs) are an emerging technology, which can meet increasing demands for large‐scale energy storage. One of the most promising cathode material candidates for sodium‐ion batteries is Na3V2(PO4)3 due to its high capacity, thermal stability, and sodium (Na) Superionic Conductor 3D (NASICON)‐type framework. In this work, the authors have significantly improved electrochemical performance and cycling stability of Na3V2(PO4)3 by introducing a 3D interconnected conductive network in the form of carbon fiber derived from ordinary paper towel. The free‐standing Na3V2(PO4)3‐carbon paper (Na3V2(PO4)3@CP) hybrid electrodes do not require a metallic current collector, polymeric binder, or conducting additives to function as a cathode material in an NIB system. The Na3V2(PO4)3@CP cathode demonstrates extraordinary long term cycling stability for 30 000 deep charge–discharge cycles at a current density of 2.5 mA cm−2. Such outstanding cycling stability can meet the stringent requirements for renewable energy storage.
56) Богатые пористыми углеродными материалами, легированными серой, полученными из листьев Гинкго для нескольких устройств накопления электрохимической энергии
A strategy of utilizing biomass in energy applications has been highly sought after due to low cost, renewability and environmental friendliness. In this work, based on the unique multilayered structure of ginkgo leaves, an interconnected carbon nanosheet with rich micro/meso pores has been fabricated using hydrothermal treatment and a KOH activation process. Attractively, due to the intensive reactions between the rich organism components of the ginkgo leaves and sulfuric acid in the preparation process, the highest amount of sulfur doping (8.245 wt%) ever reported has been achieved in the as-obtained biomass derived carbons. Combined with the N doping derived from the proteins in ginkgo leaves, S,N dual-doping porous carbons with an interconnected sheet-like structure demonstrate excellent electrochemical performance in both EDLCs and NIBs. The application in EDLCs in aqueous electrolyte showed a high specific capacitance of 364 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 and only 2% capacitance loss after 30 000 cycles. In an ionic liquid electrolyte, the devices were able to deliver an energy density of 16 W h kg−1 at an extremely high power density of 50 kW kg−1. As a sodium-ion battery anode, it has the capacity of 200 mA h g−1 after 500 cycles (99% capacity retention) at 0.2 A g−1, which is superior or at least comparable to those of biomass derived carbons reported recently. Therefore, all these results exhibit the promising potential of the ginkgo leaves-derived carbon for wide applications in the field of energy storage devices.
57) Твердые углеродные аноды из биомассы сосновой шишки для высокоэффективных натриево-ионных аккумуляторов
Hard-carbon is considered as one of the most promising anode materials for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Now it is imperative to develop a proper preparation method to obtain hard carbon anode particles with high initial coulombic efficiency and good cycling performance. In this paper, we have successfully prepared high performance hard carbon anodes, by selecting abundant and low-cost pinecones as biomass precursor and optimizing the preparation parameters of pinecone-derived hard carbon (PHC). The microstructure of PHC is studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) as well as nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm methods. The performance of PHC is highly dependent on the carbonization temperature. Increasing carbonization temperature of pinecone precursor can reduce surface area and thus improve the initial coulombic efficiency. Varying carbonization temperature can also adjust the slope and plateau capacity of PHC, and then regulate the energy density and power characteristics of PHC in battery operation. PHC1400 still delivers a capacity of 334 mA h g−1 after 120 cycles, with a high initial coulombic efficiency of 85.4%. Our results suggest that PHC is a promising anode material for practical large-scale SIB application.
59) Полученные из (бурых) водорослей твердые угли в качестве современных анодных материалов для ионно-натриевых батарей
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have received much attention for scalable electrical energy storage because of the abundance and wide availability of sodium resources. However, it is still unclear whether carbon anodes can realize large-scale commercial application in SIBs as in lithium-ion batteries. Recently, great attention has been devoted to hard carbon which has been treated as a promising choice. Herein, we observe that the turbostratic lattice of kelp-derived hard carbon (KHC) is repeatedly expandable and shrinkable upon cycling, where the interlayer distance varies between 3.9 and 4.3 Å. Such interlayer spacing dilation is highly reversible, giving rise to high rate capability (a stable capacity of 96 mA h g−1 at 1000 mA g−1) and excellent cycling performance (205 mA h g−1 after 300 cycles at 200 mA g−1). Furthermore, kelp-derived hard carbon exhibits a good specific capacity at potentials higher than 0.05 V, which make it an essentially dendrite-free anode for SIBs.
60) Твердоуглеродистые аноды Spinifex (сено) из наноцеллюлозы для высокоэффективных натриево-ионных аккумуляторов
The selection of an appropriate anode material is a critical factor in dictating the effectiveness of sodium-ion batteries as a cost-effect alternative to lithium-ion batteries. Hard carbon materials sourced from biomass offer the potential for a more sustainable anode material, while also addressing some of the thermodynamic issues associated with using traditional graphite anodes for sodium-ion batteries (NIBs). Herein, we report the preparation of carbon electrode materials from low-cost cellulose nanofibers derived from an Australian native arid grass ‘spinifex’ (Triodia pungens). This nanocellulose derived carbon produced by a fast, low temperature carbonization protocol showed superior performance as an anode for NIBs with a specific capacity (386 mA h g−1 at 20 mA g−1) on par with that of the graphite based anode for lithium-ion batteries, and is one of the highest capacity carbon anodes reported for NIBs. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the large interlayer spacing of the carbon (∼0.39 nm). Superior cycling stability and high rate tolerance (326 mA h g−1 at 50 mA g−1 and 300 mA h g−1 at 100 mA g−1) suggest that hard carbons derived from sustainable precursors are promising for next generation rechargeable batteries.
61) Микро-наноструктура твердого углерода (фильтровочная бумага) как высокоэффективный анодный материал для натрий-ионных аккумуляторов
Superior first-cycle Coulomb efficiency (above 80%) is displayed by filter paper-derived micro-nano structure hard carbon, and it delivers a high reversible capacity of 286 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles as the anode for Na-ion battery at 20 mA g−1. These advantageous performance characteristics are attributed to the unique micro-nano structure, which reduced the first irreversible capacity loss by limiting the contact between the electrode and electrolyte, and enhanced the capacity by accelerating electron and Na-ion transfer through inter-connected nano-particles and nano-pores, respectively. The good electrochemical performance indicates that this low-cost hard carbon could be a promising anode for Na-ion batteries.
62) Мощный и высокоэффективный твердый углерод, полученный из кленового дерева и биомассы, в качестве анодного материала для ионно-натриевых аккумуляторов
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are in the spotlight because of their potential use in large-scale energy storage devices due to the abundance and low cost of sodium-based materials. There are many SIB cathode materials under investigation but only a few candidate materials such as carbon, oxides and alloys were proposed as anodes. Among these anode materials, hard carbon shows promising performances with low operating potential and relatively high specific capacity. Unfortunately, its low initial coulombic efficiency and high cost limit its commercial applications. In this study, low-cost maple tree-biomass-derived hard carbon is tested as the anode for sodium-ion batteries. The capacity of hard carbon prepared at 1400 °C (HC-1400) reaches 337 mAh/g at 0.1 C. The initial coulombic efficiency is up to 88.03% in Sodium trifluoromethanesulfonimide (NaTFSI)/Ethylene carbonate (EC): Diethyl carbonate (DEC) electrolyte. The capacity was maintained at 92.3% after 100 cycles at 0.5 C rates. The in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that no peak shift occurred during charge/discharge, supporting a finding of no sodium ion intercalates in the nano-graphite layer. Its low cost, high capacity and high coulombic efficiency indicate that hard carbon is a promising anode material for sodium-ion batteries.
63) Повышенная производительность благодаря увеличенным нанопорам ламеллярного углерода, полученного из листьев (березы плосколистой и софоры японской), для анода натриево-ионной батареи
Lamellar hard carbon derived from holly leaf with enlarged pores of tiny graphite-like domains and meso-pores was prepared by hydrothermal followed high temperature pyrolysis process. Benefiting from the enlarged nano-pores of tiny graphite-like domains and the thin sheet structure with meso-pores, the derived carbon delivered a high reversible capacity of 318 mAh g−1 at a current rate of 20 mA g−1 and excellent rate capability as the anode of sodium-ion battery. And the hydrothermal followed high temperature pyrolysis method was also confirmed an effective approach for betula platyphylla and sophora japonica leaf as precursor respectively to synthesis hard carbon of lamellar structure with enlarged nano-pores of tiny graphite-like domains.
65) Мембрана из карбонизированного листа (дуба) с анизотропными поверхностями для ионно-натриевой батареи
A simple one-step thermal pyrolysis route has been developed to prepare carbon membrane from a natural leaf. The carbonized leaf membrane possesses anisotropic surfaces and internal hierarchical porosity, exhibiting a high specific capacity of 360 mAh/g and a high initial Coulombic efficiency of 74.8% as a binder-free, current-collector-free anode for rechargeable sodium ion batteries. Moreover, large-area carbon membranes with low contact resistance are fabricated by simply stacking and carbonizing leaves, a promising strategy toward large-scale sodium-ion battery developments.
66) Шпон из натуральной нарезанной древесины как универсальная пористая легкая подложка для суперконденсаторных электродных материалов
We herein report the use of natural sliced wood veneer as a porous lightweight substrate for supercapacitor composite electrodes, where polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide (PANI/RGO) and polypyrrole/reduced graphene oxide (PPy/RGO) were employed as the complex electroactive materials, and were prepared using physical deposition and in situ polymerisation methods. Owing to the hierarchical cellular structure, penetrating channels, and hydrophilic character of the natural wood substrate, both wood electrodes displayed unique morphologies and exhibited high specific capacitances, good capacitance retention, and good cycling stabilities. More specifically, the as-designed PANI/RGO wood and PPy/RGO wood electrodes gave high gravimetric specific capacitances of 931.92 and 848.01 F g⁻¹, respectively, at a current density of 2.5 mA cm⁻² in a three-electrode test. In addition, the assembled symmetric supercapacitors showed good areal specific capacitances of 0.89 and 0.78 F cm⁻², respectively, at a sweep rate of 1 mV s⁻¹ in addition to high areal specific energies of 107.70 and 86.96 mW h cm⁻², respectively, at an areal specific power of 0.25 mW cm⁻². Our results indicate that the use of natural wood as a substrate for supercapacitor electrodes will be an important contribution to the development of green and renewable energy storage devices.
67) Синтез углеродсодержащего композита на основе древесины (опилки) осины и его структурные и электрохимические свойства
Highly porous ZnO/carbon composite with a specific surface area of up to 2050 m2 g–1 was prepared from aspen sawdust modified with zinc chloride. The effect of temperature, modifier, and long preliminary keeping in water on the structural characteristics of the final product was examined. The possibility of using porous materials synthesized from aspen wood waste as electrode materials was demonstrated. As shown by cyclic voltammetry, the apparent specific electrical capacitance reaches 104 F g–1.

Встреча Путина с получателями мегагрантов и молодыми учёными
Президент провёл в Сочи встречу с получателями мегагрантов и молодыми учёными.
и закончил ее фразой "Соединение науки и производства – это извечная проблема..."(с)
а может ну их? соединения те! ведь молодые фундаменталисты от науки, на этой же встрече -ни один, не заявил что уйдет в производственную реализацию своих же завихрений...
то есть, повторение Королева с прямым руководством строительства Байконура, ожидать от них не приходиться??? хотя о глобальности своих проектов, через одного объявляют, не забывая добавить, что госкормушка на пять лет маловата... им бы до пенсии -фундаментировать!
для примера, вот один получатель гранта МК-5193.2011.5 "Изучение наночастиц и промежуточных продуктов восстановления Au, Ag, Cu и платиновых металлов на оксидных и сульфидных минералах"...
ну казалось бы накой ему со своей специализацией -подписываться соавтором публикации по древесине? тем более участвуя в успешном проекте
дык, оТнако индекс цитирования, не важно за чО -дальнейшее грантопоедание обеспечит... но, прикол в том, что иностранная публикация -существенно отличаются от российского оригинала!
читаем первоисточник

и сравниваем с аннотацией со ссылкой на него же

ну и подумаешь скажут молодые учОные -приукрасили малЁхо достижения?
а еще, то что пролазит для внутреннего употребления изъяли, что б мировая наука, заточенная на производство быстровосстанавливаемых ресурсов, не охренела от такой российской расточительности...

и заодно ссыль №6 из исследования исключили, видать от серьезной сердцевинной гнили нашей науки?

такое впечатление, как будто этическую экспертизу, о которой тоже упоминали на той встрече с Путиным -прошли втихоря... типа надо вводить международную, вот и ввели! не отстаивая научную точку зрения -принятую (может и ошибочно) в России, а просто переписывая публикации в угоду зарубежному сообЧеству...
и видать, для пущей значимости -еще один контрольный образец в результаты экспериментов добавили? который в оригинальной публикации, даже не значился... а тут - появился!

причем, обосновали эту вставку для иностранного потребителя -красиво "One of the main ways to eliminate the drawbacks (relatively low heat of combustion and high, up to 70%, moisture content) preventing wide use of aspen wood waste in power engineering is conversion of the wood biomass into useful products by pyrolysis.
Despite numerous theoretical and practical studies on synthesis of carbon sorbents from wood [6–9], studies on the effect of moisture content and water treatment on their structural characteristics are few [10, 11], and the occurring processes are poorly understood. Therefore, studies on the synthesis of carbon materials from wastes of aspen wood, including the wood subjected to prolonged action of water, and on the infl uence of water on the properties of the product obtained are of particular interest from both scientifi c and practical viewpoints"

но, мля -если в России не будут знать такИ фундаментальные выводы, что устранением препятствий, для широкого использования осины в энергетике, является - превращение, древесной биомассы в полезные продукты, путем пиролиза!!! то это, при вот таких скрываемых, "теоретических исследованиях по синтезу углеродных сорбентов из древесины [6–9], на предмет: влияния содержания влаги на их структурные характеристики [10, 11]"(с) - так и останутся плохо изученными...
да ТАК, что -представляющий особый интерес в России, как с научной, так и с практической точек зрения, к исследованиям по синтезу углеродных материалов из древесины, подвергающейся длительному воздействию воды, с ее влиянием на свойства полученного продукта, ваЩе пропадет за ненадобностью.

а виноват во всем, как уже догадались по меткам -Чубайс! прямо запрещающий своими конторами по наносертификации в стране, даже малейшее упоминание наноцеллюлозы и ее биокомпозитов.
вот и приходится молодым, да желающим развивать это направление исследований выкручиваться и подобным способом? приглашая спеца по наноструктурам со стороны, да подгоняя результаты под приемлемые требования мировой мыслИ! при этом оглядываясь на российскую бюрократию от науки, чтобы финансирование не перекрыли...
ведь, даже в этой работе -есть доказательства того, что существует запрет на развитие исследований по направлению, на которое последнее три года в мире, тратятся судя по зарубежным публикациям огромные средства.
читаем первоисточник https://cyberleninka.ru/article/v/termohimicheskaya-pererabotka-osinovoy-drevesiny :
1) "Причем в качестве подложки применяют не только активированный углерод, получаемый в основном из скорлупы ореха..." -запоминаем про скорлупу, которая по всем мировым (НЕчубайсовским) параметрам -НАНОструктура?
2) "Образцы исходной древесины осины (ДО)...." образец только вымоченный в воде и все.
3) "При температуре карбонизации 800 °С удельная поверхность НЕмодифицированного продукта возрастает до 471 м2*г-1..." то есть, всего лишь вымоченный и хорошо поджаренный, а уже с такими возросшими показателями!
"приведены ЦВА-кривые для этих образцов в узком диапазоне потенциалов 0–450 мВ (рис. 5). Как видим, в этом диапазоне потенциалов ЦВА для образцов ДО (800 °С) и ДО-ZnCl2 (400 °С) имеют псевдопрямоугольную форму, что является идентификатором двухслойной емкости с быстрыми заряд-разряд-скоростями. Кажущиеся удельные емкости при скорости развертки потенциала 10 мВ∙с-1 составляют 415 и 220 Ф∙г-1 для ДО (800 °С) и ДО-ZnCl2 (400 °С) соответственно."
4) а вот порошок скорлупы кокосового ореха -вонА чего претерпел, что б называться вспененным графитом (наноструктура) -ведь???

5) кЕтайский аэрогель... эТ когда целлюлозу из древесины вытащили, отмочили высушили, пропитали -отжарили, сжали! поимев всего лишь

то есть с худшими электрохимическими показателями, у двух последних экспериментов, чем у якобы НЕмодифицированных наших осиновых опилок -почему???

ответ прост -потому что роснанЫ-нанЫ умудрилось забацать новейший фолиант (которым кабмин собирается устроить регулятивную гильотину), в виде ГОСТ ISO/TS 80004-3-2014 Нанотехнологии. Часть 3
которым из углеродных (в том числе из всей биомассы) признается, только САЖА - наноструктурой... полученная специально, а не случайно! вообщем накопотил Чубайс?
А.4 Технический углерод (сажа)
Технический углерод (сажа) является коллоидным углеродным материалом промышленного производства, имеющим вид сфер или их агрегатов размерами менее 1000 нм (см. [7]). Размеры первичной частицы находятся в пределах от 5 до 50 нм. ...... Технический углерод имеет определенную морфологию с минимальным содержанием смол или других включений, и его следует отличать по содержанию смол, золы и примесей от копоти (также называемой "сажей"), образующейся случайно.